Thursday, October 1, 2020

Ambuli mama artiste - Sankaran mama is no more ! - Vikramaditya brought to our eyes

 

சிறு வயதில் நாம் அனைவரும் தவறாமல் படித்த புத்தகம் - 'அம்புலிமாமா'! .. .. அந்த காலத்தில், நமது பொருளாதார நிலைமையில், புத்தகங்கள் வாங்குவது அவ்வளவு எளிதல்ல. கங்கைகொண்டான் மண்டபத்தின் ஒரு பக்கத்தில், காய்கறி அங்காடிகளுக்கு எதிரில் பழைய புத்தக கடையில் - அம்புலி மாமா இதழ்கள் (பழையன) பல தொங்கும்.  பழையதோ, புதியதோ - கதை ஒன்றுதானே !  ... விறுவிறுப்பு சற்றும் குறையாது.

புத்தகத்தின் கவரும் அட்டைப்படத்தை புரட்டி உள்ளே சென்றால், இரண்டாவது கதை எப்போதுமே - விக்ரமாதித்தன் - வேதாளம்' கதை !

தன் முயற்சியில் சற்றும் தளராத விக்கிரமன் மரத்தில் ஏறி அதில் தொங்கிய வேதாளத்தை  கீழே வீழ்த்தினான். பின்னர் அவன் கீழேயிறங்கி, அதைத் தூக்கிக் கொண்டு  செல்லுகையில், வேதாளம், “மன்னா! இரவு பகலாக இவ்வாறு காட்டிலும், மேட்டிலும் நடு நிசியில் திரியும் உன்னைக் கண்டு பரிதாபமாக இருக்கிறது - இப்படித்தான் முன்னொரு காலத்தில் ... ஒரு நாட்டில் .. என கதையை ஆரம்பித்து, ஒரு கேள்வி கேட்கும்.  கதை முடிவில் மன்னன் மிகச்சரியான பதிலை அளிப்பான்.  விக்கிரமனது சரியான பதிலினால் அவன் மௌனம் கலையவே,  தான் தங்கியிருந்த உடலுடன் பறந்து சென்று வேதாளம் மீண்டும் முருங்கை மரத்தில் ஏறிக் கொண்டது- என கதை முடியும்.  மற்றோரு கதை அடுத்த இதழில் தொடரும்.

போஜராஜன் என்பவனுக்கு ஒரு காட்டில் கனகமணி சிம்மாசனம் கிடைக்கப்பெறுகிறது.  அந்த சிம்மாசனத்தில் 32 படிகள் இருக்கின்றன. அந்த சிம்மாசனத்தின் மீது ஏறி அமர்ந்து ஆட்சி செய்ய விரும்பும் போஜராஜன் அதன் மீது ஏறப் போகும் போது அந்தப் படிகளில் இருக்கும் பதுமைகள் கைகொட்டிச் சிரிக்கின்றன. "இந்த சிம்மாசனம் வீரமும் அறிவும் பராக்கிரமும் ஒருங்கே அமையப் பெற்றிருந்த விக்கிரமாதித்ய மகாராஜா அமர்ந்திருந்தது. இதில் ஏறி அமர உனக்குத் தகுதி இருக்கிறதா என்று பார்த்துக் கொள்" என்று கேலி பேசுகின்றன. அந்தப் பதுமைகளில் முதல் பதுமை விக்கிரமாதித்ய ராஜா பற்றியும் அவனுடைய மதியூக மந்திரி பட்டி பற்றியும் இந்த சிம்மாசனம் இந்திரனிடமிருந்து அவனுக்குக் கிடைத்த கதையையும் சொல்கிறது.

காளி தேவியின் பக்தனான விக்கிரமாதித்தன் வடநாட்டில் உள்ள உஜ்ஜைனியை ஆண்டு வந்தான். ஆறுமாதம் நாடு, ஆறு மாதம் காடு என்று அவன் ஆண்டுவந்த அவன், காடாறு மாத சமயத்தில் ஒவ்வொரு முறையும் வெவ்வேறு இடங்களுக்குச் செல்வான். மகா பராக்கிரம சாலியான மன்னன் விக்ரமாதித்தன்.

 

As described in Tamil, the book that we read with great interest was ‘Ambuli Mama’ (lit. Moon Uncle) and in that in every issue would be featured the story of King Vikramathithya and Vethalam.  

 

The hugely popular Chandamama  (Ambuli Mama in Tamil) magazine was a classic Indian monthly magazine for children which depicted mythological and historical stories. It was famous for its illustrations. Originally started in Telugu by B.Nagi Reddy and Chakrapani, well known Telugu Film producers; it was on Tamil right from the start.  It later got printed  in twelve Indian languages as well as English. The last issue of the magazine was published in March 2013 !.    Kodavatiganti Kutumba Rao, a very close friend of Chakrapani and a literary colossus in Telugu Literature,  edited it for 28 years, till his death in August 1980.

 

In 2007, Chandamama was bought by Geodesic, a Mumbai-based software services provider company. They planned to take the then 60 year old magazine into the digital era. However the magazine is currently defunct  

The story of Vikramaditya and Vedal would be lucidly written with great illustrations bringing it to life.  It was the handiwork of KC Shiva Shankaran, fondly Sankar mama, to its readers.  Sankaran studied at Muthialpet High School when the drawing teacher discovered his innate talent.    


Sad to know the passing away of the artiste Sankar mama due to old age today  – he was 94

With grief – S. Sampathkumar

29.09.2020.

Pic credit : Tamil Indian Express 

 

 

Music festival ..........and .. ...... .. rotting apples !!

This is a post on ‘Apples’ (fruit) and Music season ! ~ what do you imagine ?

 

Utterance of Music season would take us to Carnatic music bonanza. There are so many famous  sabhas - The Madras Music Academy, The Indian Fine Arts Society, Tamil Isai Sangam, Sri Krishna Gana Sabha, Naradha Gana Sabha, Mylapore Fine Arts Club, Nungambakkam Fine Arts Academy, Rasika Ranjana Sabha, Sri Parthasarathi Swami sabha and more.  Some of the regulars include Sudha Raghunathan, Bombay Jayashree, Priya Sisters,  Sanjay Subrahmanyan, Sikkil Gurucharan, Padma Subramanian, Shashank Subrahmanyan, Malladi Brothers, Roja Kannan, Neyveli Santhana Gopalan, Aruna Sairam, Chitra Visweswaran, Dr. S Sowmya, Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam and many  others.

Every December, Chennai witnesses the music season called the Margazhi festival, where classical music artists around the world get a chance to showcase their talent. More than 500 organisations put up over 2,000 music performances in the city.  No other city celebrates the December music season the way Chennai does. It is a marquee event, one that has people not just from the city, but from across the world, waiting in anticipation, and planning for months in advance.  The Margazhi Kutcheri season had its origin in the 1920s, when musicians residing in Chennai (then known as Madras) decided to dedicate the month of Margazhi to music and prayer. During those days, music was often in the form of devotional offerings commonly known as ‘nama sangeerthanam’ or ‘bhajans’. Over the years, Margazhi season has evolved into a comprehensive festival for performing arts. Junior artistes put up performances during the afternoons between 2 pm and 4 pm, while established and senior artistes give performances during the prime slot in the evenings between 6 pm and 8 pm. In certain cases, senior artistes may also be given the morning slot for their performances.  

Miles away, Somerset  has traditions of art, music and literature. William Wordsworth and Coleridge wrote while staying in Coleridge Cottage, Nether Stowey. Somerset  is a county in South West England that has Taunton too.  According to British,  human occupation here dates back to Paleolithic times, and of subsequent settlement by the Celts, Romans and Anglo-Saxons. For us, reference to Somerset is Cricket, more so – King Viv.  On June 1, 1985 Viv Richards plundered 322 runs in a single day against Warwickshire at Taunton.  Under Brian Rose,   Somerset won their first ever silverware by taking the Gillette Cup and the Sunday League in 1979. Controversy returned to Somerset in the mid-1980s. With the successful side ageing, new captain Peter Roebuck led the move to make changes and the overseas stars Viv Richards and Joel Garner were sacked, replaced by the New Zealander Martin Crowe. Ian Botham resigned from Somerset in protest and moved to Worcestershire.

In UK too there is music – at the top end of the scale is the world famous Glastonbury Music Festival. Reportedly  250,000 music lovers gather at Worthy Farm. In 2020, this incredible music festival will have been in existence for 50 years!  This festival doesn’t take place every year. The land and local residents are given a break every 5 years or so.  Glastonbury Festival  is a five-day festival of contemporary performing arts that takes place in Pilton, Somerset, in England. In addition to contemporary music, the festival hosts dance, comedy, theatre, circus, cabaret, and other arts.  Regarded as a major event in British culture, the festival is inspired by the ethos of the hippie, counterculture, and free festival movements.   The festival's record crowd is 300,000 people, set at the 1994 festival, when headliners the Levellers performed a set on The Pyramid Stage.  There are some other festivals like : Shindig Weekender; the Bath Festival finale; Pub in the Park Royal Victoria Park in Bath;  Smoked and Uncut; ArcTanGent .. .

It is not about the festivals or names .. .. but the news that millions of apples will be left to rot and orchards chainsawed after cancellation of music festivals leaves cider lake undrunk.   The cancellation of music festivals this summer due to the coronavirus pandemic has led to a huge surplus of cider which is devastating apple growers. Farmers in the West Country say that millions of cider apples that are now ready to be picked and pressed to make the traditional drink will be left to rot instead. The problem has been compounded by the vast amounts of left-over barrels and bottles of cider produced 12 months ago which have gone unsold and are collecting dust on shelves.

According to the owner of  Somerset Cider Brandy in Kingsbury Episcopi near Martock, Somerset,   his staff will produce about 50,000 gallons of cider this year, half of what they usually make.  The closure of festivals such as Glastonbury as well as pubs and restaurants led to demand for traditional apple cider to dry up this year.  One leading West Country cider producer fears some farmers will be hit so hard that may end up axing their apple orchards to grow other crops instead.  He said he is lucky as he can use the rest of the apples to make cider brandy which can last for years in barrels, but other farmers will have to bin their stock. He added: 'Normally at this time of the year the smell of apples hits you when you enter the village, but it will be a smell of rotten fruit this year.

Apple growers feel that this year is one of  the worst crises they have ever had – that is the economic effect of Corona virus.  'If you have apples in orchards that can't be sold then you will probably find the grower reaching for the chainsaw as they may as well grow barley instead and the world will be a poorer place for it. But on the plus side overwintering birds like thrushes and starlings will have a 'field day' this autumn by feasting on the rotten apples left on the ground.

With regards – S. Sampathkumar
29.09.2020

Ishan Kishan 99 ~ Ever heard of a Cricketer who bowled 115 mph and whacked over 130 yards !!!

IPL is all about opportunities –  Ishan Pranav Kumar Pandey Kishan, what an innings he played yesterday !   Ever imagined a bowler delivering 115 mph and whacking ball for 130 yards !!!!



A day after IPL 2020 delivered an incredible thriller with the highest ever successful chase, the Mumbai Indians and the Royal Challengers Bangalore went one better. They were still behind even when Kieron Pollard smacked Adam Zampa and Yuzvendra Chahal for an imagination-defying 49 runs in two overs during his unbeaten 60 off 24 balls. At the other end was  Ishan Kishan - back in the XI due to a Saurabh Tiwary niggle – played an innings of life -  out for 99 to make it five needed off the last ball. Pollard hit a four, to bring the match to a Super Over.

Today, when teams have AB de Villiers, Quinton de Kock, Jos Butler, Pooran, John Bairstow,  MS Dhoni, Dinesh Karthik Wriddhiman Saha, Rishab Pant, KL Rahul keeping, there is still place for the likes of Josh Philippe, Sanju Samson, Ishan Kishan and others to play !!  .. .. ..  

I grew up watching Farokh Engineer, (heard of P Krishnamurthi) – when he settled elsewhere, Syed Kirmani came and dominated for a decade or more – though Barath Reddy, Surinder Khanna, Sadanand Viswanath got few chances – it was a settled team with Kiri behind – Kiran More too was stable, and then Nayan Mongia.  Later there were many who played -  Sabha Karim, Vijay Yadav,  MSK Prasad, Vijay Dahiya, Sameer Dighe, Deep Dasgupta, Ajay Ratra, Parthiv Patel,  Mahendra Singh Dhoni,  Wriddhiman Saha, Naman Ojha, Rishab Pant. MSD was a saga .. .. the point is it is tough breaking into a side.

Moving away from IPL and India, have read the neighbouring Paki always is embroiled in controversies.  Former Pakistan Cricket Board chairman Khalid Mahmood, while criticising incumbent PCB set-up, says that by not fully implementing the new constitution despite passage of one-year the body has made a mockery of law and the system. In an exclusive interview with Dawn, Khalid said what was going on in PCB’s affairs was amazing noting the cricket infrastructure at the grassroots level had been destroyed because of non-existent provincial associations, city associations and after abolishment of departmental cricket.

I have seen Imran Khan, Sarfraz Nawaz, Sikhandhar Bakht, Azeem Hafeez, Wasim Akram, Waqar Younis, Aaqib Javed, .. .. have never head of Farooq Hamid. Read this in Dawn -  Former fast bowler Farooq Hamid, an unsung hero of Pakistan cricket history, on Saturday said he left cricket in 1969 at the age of 25 in utter disappointment due to dirty politics which continue to plague Pakistan cricket.

Farooq, who could play just one Test match against Australia, and claimed the only wicket of Ian Chappell in 1964 in Melbourne, in an exclusive interview to Dawn said: “All my colleagues know what sort of treatment I was meted out from my captains, topping that list is great Hanif Mohammad — may God bless his soul — and his brother Wazir Mohammad, who made sure I never played international cricket after the tour to Australia.

“When I took seven wickets for 16 runs against Wellington in a match (on the New Zealand tour), they were dismissed for 53 runs in just ten overs.” recalled Farooq, whose nickname was Tooty. “However, everyone was surprised to see that I was not in the Pakistan team for the Test match that was played at the same venue after a couple of days. And neither was I included for the other two Tests played against New Zealand in that series,” he said. “In 1963 when I was part of the Pakistan Eaglets team touring England, I had taken five wickets in three overs but my captain Wazir Mohammad did not give me the ball for further bowling against Lancashire at the old Trafford ground,” said Farooq. “Later, Secretary MCC Mr. Howard told my manager that, “today Farooq bowled a yard quicker than Truman at his best.”

“This and much more of the same treatment disheartened and demoralised me so much that I decided to quit cricket at the young age of just 25,” he said. Farooq added that his bouncers during his peak cricketing days were ferocious and quite unplayable that unnerved a lot of fine batsmen. “Wazir, while facing me in a trophy match, was hit right on the mouth by my bouncer and four of his teeth were broken and his lip got ten stitches. “Hanif, while facing me in 1969 final in Quaid-e-Azam Trophy, was bowled with an out swinging yorker on the very third ball he faced. Many international cricket personalities such as great Sir Don Bradman besides or own Imtiaz Ahmed, Zaheer Abbas and others considered me as the fastest bowler, even faster than Charlie Griffith of the West Indies,” he said.



“Many leading cricketers were scared of my bouncers, but former Test batsman Mohammad Ilyas is one of those who could face my bouncers with better technique. Ilyas also proved a better hooker against Griffith, who toured Pakistan in 1963 with the Commonwealth team ” he recalled. “On that tour, great batsman Rohan Kanhai was floored by my lethal bouncer. Later, the commentators said that I was much quicker than Griffith. I must have been bowling at around 110-115 miles per hour I think,” he said.

 Asked if his aggressive attitude was one of the reasons behind his short international career, Farooq replied: “Every fast bowler should be aggressive , it was the job of the team management to handle fast bowlers carefully. “Yes, the same politics is going on and harming our cricket. But we are lucky now that we have legendary all-rounder Imran Khan as Prime Minister and hopefully cricket will improve under him,” observed Farooq. “However, if Imran Khan fails to correct the system then only God can save our cricket.”  Farooq disclosed that he also coached Sarfraz Nawaz in the early stage of his career and later they both played domestic cricket together.

During his early days, Farooq also earned a name as an International athlete, winning gold and silver medals in Pakistan National Games from 1961-1970 and his total points in decathlon were 6700 in National Games when the Asian champion in then Asian Games could muster 6300 points. As a batsman too, Farooq could do a fair job when in form. He said that he might be the only cricketer who hit maximum big sixes in Sydney and at the Gaddafi Stadium. “My six at the Sydney cricket ground went out of the stadium over the ladies pavilion into the car park. Approximately over 130 yards,” he said. The Australian newspaper termed him ‘Farooq The king hitter of the world’. The one at Gaddafi Stadium landed on top of the stairs of the stadium.

Farooq also suggested the PCB should make amendments in its pension package for the old cricketers. “I want to suggest that PCB follow the policy of the Defence Forces, where after the age of 72 the pension is doubled automatically,” he said. He added that very few cricketers are living to 70-plus age, so their pension should be more than doubled,” he said. Farooq’s sister Tahira Hamid also helped Pakistan in setting up the Women cricket association in 1978 and she was the first secretary of the association.

Reading the article published in Dawn this week, it does appear that this man was immensely talented but was given a raw deal – sad, politics in sports have kept people out !!

With regards – S. Sampathkumar

29.09.2020.

PS: news on Farooq - reproduced from the Dawn.

take a bow ! ~ fairtale finish by Rahul Tewatia !

 We have seen 100s of matches and many fairytale finishes .. .. there was a time in 1980s when score of close to 200 (in 50 overs) was considered defendable and score of 240+ - certain win !! .. .. never in life, one would have imagined the hero being a player who had just played 21 matches till the game, had aggregated 121 runs – having hit 4 sixers in all – would make the Cricket world sing paens on him !! – he is a leg-spinner bowling allrounder !!
Perhaps before 10 pm on 27.9.2020, he was trolled as badly or more than what Murali Vijay has been receiving – he himself had to say – ‘that was the worst first 20 balls that I have ever played. I was hitting the ball very good in the nets, so I had belief in myself and kept going’ – natural that people would mock him.  Leg-spin bowling all-rounder Rahul Tewatia was traded to Rajasthan Royals from Delhi Capitals ahead of IPL 2020. It’s a homecoming of sorts for Tewatia, who had made his IPL debut with RR in 2014! ~ ever heard him before.

Before that what a game KingX1 Punjab had – only  21 balls remained in the innings when Glenn Maxwell walked in, and only 12 when Nicholas Pooran came to the crease. It can be difficult to come in at that sort of time and find the boundary immediately, but both managed it to varying degrees of success. Rajpoot and Tom Curran managed to tie Maxwell down to an extent, but he created a couple of boundaries with his movement around the crease. Pooran, however, got a few balls in his slot and dispatched all of them ruthlessly - he hit three sixes and a four in just eight balls, three of those boundaries coming in an 18-run final over from Jofra Archer. But none would talk about them as on that day, KL  Rahul and Mayank Agarwal seemed to tire as their partnership progressed, and from 172 for no loss at the 15-over mark, Kings XI scored 22 off the next 18 balls - a period in which they lost both openers.

A great innings from young Mayank Agarwal, whose  sparkling form allowed him to achieve a control percentage of 80 - which is pretty high for an innings achieving a strike rate of 212.00. At the other end, Rahul faced 54 balls - four more than Agarwal - and pulled off a control percentage of 85, but only struck at 127.77. Aside from a hat-trick of fours against Jofra Archer in the fourth over, he seemed to almost consciously play second fiddle to Agarwal, giving him the strike whenever possible. Yet, Mayank’s brilliant 100 too was buried.

As it unfolded, it felt like a chase that defied logic in every way possible. But by the time the Rajasthan Royals were done mowing down a target of 224 - an IPL record - the scorecard reflected one bit of cold, hard T20 logic: the team that hits more sixes usually wins. Kings XI Punjab hit 11 sixes - seven coming off the bat of Mayank Agarwal, who made a scintillating 106 off 50 balls - and the Royals hit 18.

Player of the match, Sanju Samson hit seven of those sixes while scoring a second successive half-century for the first time in his IPL career. His 42-ball 85 stunned everybody as he put on 81 for the second wicket with Steven Smith in just 40 balls, putting the Royals well in touch with their asking rate. They then promoted Rahul Tewatia - their only left-hander - to No. 4, and the move was beginning to look like one of the most ill-judged tactical interventions in IPL history when he struggled to hit the ball off the square and crawled to 8 off 19 balls. But the six-hitting ability that he possesses came into view just when the Royals seemed out of it. Tewatia smacked Sheldon Cottrell for five sixes in a match-turning, match-defining 18th over, and an improbable 51 off 18 balls turned into a far more straightforward 21 off 12.

The cricketing world, on Sunday, perhaps watched the greatest turnaround in a player’s fortune thanks to Rahul Tewatia’s stunning match-winning knock for Rajasthan Royals against Kings XI Punjab.  Rahul Tewatia  batting on 17 off 23 balls changed the destiny in one over of Cottrell, hitting five sixes to script a stunning come-from-behind win for his side by four wickets. He hit one more six to reach his fifty off 30 balls before departing in the 19th over. Tom Curran then hit a four to take the Royals home with three balls remaining.

Great game – well played – Rahul, Mayank, Sanju and Tewatia !

With regards – S. Sampathkumar

28.09.2020

Containers containing medical waste being returned !

                                                                  Director Hari’s Singam 3 starring  Suriya, Anushka Shetty and Thakur Anoop Singh, focussed  Durai Singam's attempt to solve the murder case of Visakhapatnam police commissioner Ramakrishna, motivated by much more disastrous activities masterminded all the way from Australia. 

Lot happening in logistics, movement of cargo ships and containers across the globe.  The UK’s port of Felixstowe has issued an apology to customers for “inconvenience”, admitting “service standards are not currently where they  would like them to be”. On its website, the port attributed its problems to “a sharp spike in import container volumes, along with a high proportion of late vessel arrivals”. The port also did a U-turn on its ban on the restitution of empty containers to the port.  Maersk, OOCL and other carriers had had to warn Felixstowe customers of delays discharging containers from vessels and longer turnaround times for trucks, as well as import containers missing rail connections.

Carriers have also been looking to divert ships to London Gateway or Southampton, including the 2M’s Asia-North Europe AE7/Condor loop vessel, the 17,816 teu Eleonora Maersk, which will now discharge its UK cargo at London Gateway.   It is reported that the vessel will load some exports redirected to Gateway, along with a “substantial number of empties”.

Back home, Ports like Chennai, Cochin and Kamrajar saw their cargo volumes nosedive about 30 per cent during April-August, while JNPT and Kolkata logged a drop of over 20 per cent. Container cargo handling at India’s major ports fell about 25 per cent during April-August amid the COVID-19 pandemic, according to ports body IPA data. Container cargo in terms of TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent unit) at India’s 12 major ports dropped 25 per cent to 3.25 million in the the April-August period of the current fiscal, showed the latest data from the Indian Ports’ Association (IPA).  In terms of tonnage, the container cargo declined 22.45 per cent to 49.26 million tonnes (MT) during the period.

A container shortage in India is causing long delays for exporters, especially on US trades. Earlier this month, The Loadstar reported the operational impact from the creeping equipment shortage in Asia – dominant headhaul traffic has caused empties to pile-up at ports in the US and Australia, for example, prompting carriers to plead for the swift return of used import boxes. According to New Jersey-based Worldwide Logistics (WL), the equipment shortage has spread to India, partly due to a drop in import volumes from China after trade restrictions were imposed by the government. “The shortage is most critical at Inland Container Depots (ICD) but also evident at port-side locations,” the forwarder noted.  

Emphasising the fact that Thoothukudi sits right between the east and west international trade routes, industrialists of southern districts have urged the Union government to declare Thoothukudi V O Chidambaranar Port as an International Container Transhipment Hub. A transhipment hub in Thoothukudi would get the containers directly shipped to India as against the existing system of containers being transhipped at Sri Lanka’s Colombo Port.  

Now something more on Singam 3 ~ the story occurs few months after Durai Singham arrested  international drug lord Danny.   Visakhapatnam City Police Commissioner  had been murdered and the Home Minister of Andhra Pradesh proposes recruiting Singam from Tamil Nadu to Vizag as the new DCP, by order under the CBI. As Singam arrives in Vizag station, he fends off an attack from goon Gun Ravi, who works for Vizag's most influential and powerful don Madhusudhana Reddy. It gets revealed by a  local schoolteacher   that a toxic smoke attack from the nearby dump killed his 32 students, including his grandchildren. Singam realizes that Ramakrishna intended to expose illegal dumping of mediwaste and electronic waste, which included recycled tablets being sold to the public and the smoke attack on the school. The garbage is being imported by Vizag Scraps owner   in exchange for free metal scrap delivery to steel companies in Australia.  .. .. ..’e waste and bio-waste’ in containers getting dumped was the crime theme of the movie !! – perhaps the movie was not screened in Sri Lanka !?!

Media reports state that Sri Lanka has sent back 21 containers full of ‘recycling’ to UK for they were full of rotting medical waste !.   The Sri Lankan government said container-loads of waste were brought into the island in violation of international laws governing the shipping of hazardous material. Previous illegally imported containers had included rags, bandages and body parts from mortuaries, according to officials.  The 21 containers were holding up to 260 tonnes of rubbish were brought into the island in violation of international laws governing the shipping of hazardous material.  The type of hospital waste was not revealed, but they departed Sri Lanka on Saturday according to customs.  Interestingly, they were not a single shipment but the rubbish had   first arrived by ship in the capital Colombo's main port between Sept 2017 and Mar 2018.


representational picture 

The containers were meant to carry used mattresses, carpets and rugs, but had also contained hospital waste, officials said.  Reportedly, the shipper had agreed to take back these 21 containers. Another 242 containers from Britain remain abandoned at the same port and at a free trade zone outside the capital.  In the past two years several Asian countries have turned back container-loads of waste from foreign shores.

With regards – S. Sampathkumar

28.09.2020

Covid 19 - deaths, people reaction, games ~ elections in Romania !!

                                 Ion Aliman victory  as   mayor,   in Romania's local elections, is indeed unique ! This election is being viewed as an indicator of how an upcoming General Election in December might unfold for the country's minority government, currently led by the National Liberal Party.

It is 30 years since Romania ousted communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu in a revolution that ended decades of communist rule in the country. The dictator and his wife were killed by a firing squad on December 25, 1989, after days of a bloody national uprising. The Communist regime in Romania, a totalitarian system from its establishment until its collapse, was one based on the constant violation of human rights, on the supremacy of a hostile ideology to open society, on the monopoly of power exercised by a small group of individuals, on repression, intimidation and corruption," says a report.  

Some 19 million registered voters across Romania are choosing local officials, council presidents and mayors to fill more than 43,000 positions across the EU member state. The most closely-watched race will be for the next mayor of the capital, Bucharest, a race between the National Liberal Party challenger Nicusor Dan and Social Democrats' incumbent Gabriela Firea. Other candidates include former Romanian president Traian Băsescu and former Prime Minister Calin Popescu Tariceanu, now leader of the Alliance of Democrats and Liberals (ALDE). The election is expected to reveal the strength of the NLP which has led the government since the Social Democratic Party (PSD) fell from power late last year.

Moving away, in UK, over  six months of the coronavirus crisis, community relations have been strained to the point that one concerned retiree in the south-west told the Guardian: “It’s like the English civil war.” Now, with control measures ramping up once more and fears that a second wave is here, mediators who work to resolve disputes through the ceiling or over the garden fence say they are seeing a surge in requests for help – and expect a lockdown in winter to push tensions to a new high.

On January 11, the first coronavirus death was officially recorded in China. Eight months after the identification of the disease that appeared in Wuhan in December 2019, the world has recorded over one million deaths. On a global scale, the deadliest week was April 13 to 19 when more than 7,460 coronavirus deaths were officially reported every day. By then the total number of deaths worldwide had risen to nearly 170,000, or double the level reported on March 31. Since the start of June, the average number of deaths per day has hovered around 5,000.  In June, the epicentre of the pandemic shifted to Latin America and the Caribbean. From July 15 to August 15, recorded deaths in the region did not drop below an average of 2,500 per day.

Brazil became the country with the most deaths in total after the United States (more than 140,000). Taking into account the size of their populations, Peru (975 deaths per one million inhabitants) and Bolivia (671), are among the worst-affected countries worldwide, alongside European countries like Belgium (861) and Spain (668).

Amidst all the melee, games are on – Test Cricket was first played in England between the home team and visiting West Indies, then Pakistan and Australia and now IPL is on at UAE.  Meantime,  Organisers for   Tokyo 2020 Olympics have proposed more than 50 measures to make the games "fit for a post-corona world," including ways to reduce staff and cut costs. The measures were proposed by the IOC Coordination Commission at a virtual news conference Friday between the International Olympic Committee and Tokyo 2020 officials.

Initial measures to be taken in an effort to reduce the number of people at the games include hosting pre-games meetings virtually, streamlining transportation services, adjusting spectator activities at competition venues and limiting stakeholder personnel attending the games. Additional measures include reducing invitations for the opening and closing ceremonies, not holding team welcoming ceremonies at the Olympic village, shortening the opening time of training venues and permitting fewer officials access to official bus services.  "The unique task of reorganizing an Olympic Games has called for the Olympic Movement to be stronger together – this milestone illustrates our collective commitment," he continued. "The 'Tokyo Model' will not only deliver a games fit for a post-corona world, it will become a blueprint that will benefit future organizing committees for many years to come."

The Tokyo Games were originally scheduled for July 2020, but due to the COVID-19 pandemic, they were postponed until July 2021. Japan has more than 81,000 cases of the coronavirus, with more than 24,850 cases in Tokyo. More than 1,540 people have died across the country. 

Now getting back to Romanian elections at the start -  after  handing Ion Aliman victory in the election for their local mayor, residents of a small village in southern Romania went to his grave to light candles for him.  Aliman was reelected in a landslide for an unprecedented third term as mayor of the village of Deveselu despite having died from COVID-19 complications 10 days prior to the country’s municipal elections. His death came too late to remove his name from Sunday’s ballot, but the news of his passing spread fast through the village, home to just over 3,000 people. The popular incumbent would have celebrated his 57th birthday on election day.

                                           To honor the man they admired, hundreds of Deveselu villagers went to the polling stations Sunday and voted for Aliman anyway. After preliminary election results showed late Sunday that Aliman had won 1,057 out of the 1,600 votes cast in Deveselu, a large group of villagers visited his grave to light candles and pay their respects.   The election victory in Deveselu was a bit of sweet news, but only a little comfort for the PSD as partial preliminary results showed Monday that they had lost the most closely watched contest — the one for the mayor of the capital, Bucharest.  

Interesting ! 

With regards – S. Sampathkumar
28/09/2020

 

 

 

 

Covid 19 - statistics and perception - the Kerala model and Uttar Pradesh way !!

Covid 19 pandemic has brought the Globe on its knees ! ~ it is certainly bad with so many dying, yet it is perhaps not that bad as the media, more specifically social media has put it to be ! people vie with other to post statistics !! 

What is your understanding of Covid 19 – the way it has affected people ? –Are you seeing / hearing of people known to you, residing closer to you ? How much do you fear ? – how many times you venture out in a week ? –   Life is all about spreadsheets, powerpoints, videos and … .. statistics -   Stats is always as blind men see the elephant – the perspective that you see matters !  Often, media would belittle Uttarpradesh, the State with high % of illiterates as compared to Kerala, the State with high % of litereates.  

India is a Nation having States – and many of States have population equivalent to that of many Nations of the World. Before you read any further – remember India has 36 entities – 28 States and 8 Union territories and they are equal in terms of area or in terms of population.  Uttar Pradesh is the topper with 16.7% of population; Maharashtra has 9.22%; Tamil Nadu has 5.91; Andhra Pradesh has 3.9 and Kerala has 2.58% of the total population.

 

There are various ways of analyzing and interpreting – we regularly get to see – the aggregate no, of Covid afflicted; while the other possible modes are : the no. of active people affected; no. of deaths; % of recovery; % of people affected as compared to the total population of the State; density of people and more .. ..  

Corona numbers are threatening.  With its highest single day rise of novel coronavirus cases, Chhattisgarh crossed the one-lakh mark on Saturday, becoming the 18th state in the country to do so.  The coronavirus numbers in Chhattisgarh has grown at the fastest rate in the country in the month of September, at one point increasing by over six per cent per day. Its total caseload has increased by three times this month, from about 33,000 to over 1.02 lakh now. Not surprisingly, Chhattisgarh also has the highest reproductive number right now. Reproductive number, or R, is the number of people who get infected by an already infected person, on an average, and is a measure of how fast the epidemic is spreading in a population group.

Right out there, the blue-eyed State of the media, Kerala, once appreciated for  its effective resistance against COVID-19. State Health Minister K.K. Shailaja was  invited as a speaker to the UN Public Service Day !   prompting the actor-politician and twitter king to jump the bandwagon hailing the State and instructing the Tamil Nadu Govt to follow the Kerala model without ever thinking of its population, spread, literacy, geography, demography or anything else .. .. he, obviously is totally silent now.  

Kerala  surpassed neighbouring Tamil Nadu to fifth position in the number of active Covid-19 cases on Friday. The active cases rose to 48,892 in Kerala, 2,506 more than nearby Tamil Nadu. The state reported 6,000-plus cases for the second straight day. Of the 6,477 total cases, 6,131 patients were infected through local transmission.  Kerala’s peak started when the pandemic is showing a downward trend in other places, according to the chairperson, who says the peak will continue until early or mid-October if the present precautions continue. The number of active cases too will be high considering the number of new cases and the long treatment period.

While TN Health Minister Dr Udayabaskar is prominently visible right from Mar 2020, visiting hospitals, health care centres, discussing with Ministers, officials, Doctors, medical staff and social workers tirelessly, he did not get that recognition as his counterpart in Kerala got.  But now,  Kerala Health Minister KK Shailaja has warned the public that the state might be forced to implement stringent measures including a second lockdown if the ‘irresponsible’ behaviour of a section of people in the name of protests does not end. In the initial phase, it was the great work of the Kerala Govt, but now it is the irresponsible behaviour of Keralites.   State health minister K K Shailaja on Sunday admitted that it is a testing time for Kerala and cases may go up sharply by next month.  More than 40,000 cases were reported in the last one week and the positivity rate has gone up to 11.9% while the national average is below 8%. “Our strategy was right from day one and we contained deaths considerably. Our death rate is still below one per cent. But of late cases are surging and it was expected. It is the second wave of the virus,” she said.

On Sunday, the state reported a newer high of 7,445 new cases taking the total to 1,75,384. Patients who have recovered stand at 1,17,921 and active cases are 56,709. With 21 new casualties, the death toll has gone up to 678.

Shun the media ! ~ reports are often biased.

With regards – S. Sampathkumar

27.09.2020. 

Mesoamerican Barrier Reef ~ heard of Parametric Insurance !

 Stretching for 625 miles along the coast of Honduras, Guatemala, Belize and Mexico, the Mesoamerican Reef (MAR) is the largest barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere. It encompasses a rich mosaic of beaches and dunes, coastal wetlands, lagoons, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and coral reefs. It’s coastline’s sandy beaches and azure waters are dotted with fishing villages, and its picturesque beauty draws thousands of visitors each year to the tourist epicenters Cancun and Belize.
Investing in nature can be one of the most effective adaptation measures in the fight against climate change. Carbon capture is so critical for the next 20 years and some natural assets, such as coral reefs, can be five to ten times more effective at this than man-made solutions. What about insuring them ?

To many of us, after decades of experience in Insurance, still the insuring terms and conditions are not fully understood. Mostly it is Automobiles (Motor) insurance, Health policies and a bit of Property and little of Liability Insurance.  Insurance protects policy holders and pays for loss or damage to insured property during the policy period,  caused by insued perils.  Insurers would often say – Insurers must understand the risk before underwriting and to be eligible for underwriting, the risk should be exposed to a peril but the result should be uncertain, loss should be ascertainable in monetary terms and should be homogenous for the Underwriter to apply term and more importantly the rate – if yes, how would a new risk like ‘a rocket launch’ would be underwritten !   

Insurance Policies indemnify ie., place the insured in the position, they were prior to the occurrence by monetary payment of the extent of damages but would a Policy respond to a situation prior to a loss, ie., in preventing a loss ! – loss minimization charges are payable yet !!  .. .. … Parametric insurance is a type of insurance that does not indemnify the pure loss, but ex-ante agrees to make a payment upon the occurrence of a triggering event. The triggering event is often a catastrophic natural event which may ordinarily precipitate a loss or a series of losses. These  insurance principles are  applied to agricultural crop insurance and other normal risks not of the nature of disaster, if the outcome of the risk is correlated to a parameter or an index of parameters. Perplexing to say the least.

The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS), also popularly known as the Great Mayan Reef,  is a marine region that stretches over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from Isla Contoy at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula down to Belize, Guatemala and the Bay Islands of Honduras.   The marine barrier is  home to more than 500 fish species, 60 coral species, 350 mollusks and  marine mammals, algaes and seagrasses. Critically endangered species like -  saltwater crocodile;          green, hawksbill and loggerhead sea turtles; Nassau and goliath grouper; manatees; all live here besides the largest aggregation of whale sharks in the world.  An estimated 2 million people are woven into the very fabric of the MAR’s rich coastal environments and count on healthy ecosystems here for their food, water and livelihoods.


Salinity, storm waves, and oxygen-poor mud discourage understory growth in the mangroves.  Mesoamerican mangroves form multiple lines of defense for the reef system. The first line is the tall mangrove forest along the coast and up the mouths of tidal rivers. The second line, and sometimes a third and fourth, occur offshore, in places where pointy mangrove seedlings have taken root atop a series of shallow marine ridges. Each clump slowly gathers the makings of an islet under itself. These islets grow into islands—mangrove cays—arranged in linear archipelagoes. The clusters of cays work as screens, benefiting the sea grass by moderating wave action and the coral reef by intercepting silt, fertilizers, and toxins in runoff from land. The mangroves, in addition to defense, provide mulch. They can shed tons of leaves per acre every year. Fungi and bacteria break down this leaf litter and consume it, then are consumed by tiny worms and crustaceans, which in turn feed small fish, which feed larger fish and birds and crocodiles.

Alongside the ongoing pandemic, the upcoming renewals, pricing, and alternative reinsurance capital,   reinsurer’s are clamouring  for innovative use of technology as it looks to help narrow the protection gap in both emerging and developed markets.  Reinsurers like SwissRe have made strides in areas like   U.S. flood space, aided by technologies such as satellite imagery, alongside its support for the development of a parametric insurance solution designed to help the conservation of the Mesoamerican Reef in Mexico. Global reinsurance giant Swiss Re has supported the development of an innovative new parametric insurance solution designed to help the conservation of the Mesoamerican Reef, which includes protecting the coral reef and beach sand against the impacts of major hurricanes.

The innovative insurance solution   was announced at the 2018 World Ocean Summit in Mexico, designed to protect the longest barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere, the Mesoamerican Reef, which protects the most important tourism hub in Mexico, the Riviera Maya, and which is home to some of the planet’s most unique and important coral reefs.  At the 2018 World Ocean Summit, the Nature Conservancy and the state government of Quintana Roo in Mexico, announced the establishment of a ‘Coastal Zone Management Trust’, which will cover a portion of the Mesoamerican Reef along Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, and which is designed to promote the conservation of coastal regions across the Mexican Caribbean.  The Trust will also  finance what will become the world’s first parametric insurance products for covering a coral reef and beach sand against the impacts of hurricanes.

This insurance-for-nature approach is a promising example of creative financing to address imminent challenges facing marine ecosystems, both in Mexico and around the world.  The Riviera Maya receives over 10 million tourists each year, and generates US $10 billion annually. Swiss Re explains that funds for both the trust and subsequent insurance premiums will be collected as a slice of the tourism taxes and other government resources.   Swiss Re explains that a healthy coral reef can lower the economic losses caused by hurricanes and storms by as much as 26%. And while coral cover is also eroded by disease, bleaching events, diminishing herbivores, and algae overgrowth, reefs can lose between 20% and 60% of live coral cover following a Category 4 or 5 storm.

Parametric reef insurance is an innovative financial mechanism that will cover the costs of rapid response actions to identify and address damage to reefs after the impact of a hurricane.Traditional insurance covers against a risk, and in the event that it materializes, a damage assessment is carried out and then a payment is granted. Parametric insurance is built under previously analyzed technical parameters, such as the type of event, the level of damage and the characteristics that can generate a negative or catastrophic impact.  Two parties take part in parametric reef insurance: The entity or custodian of the reefs exposed to the risk of a catastrophic event, in this case a hurricane as it’s defined in the design of the insurance; and the insurance company. Those parties then agree upon the characteristics/parameters of the hurricane or climatic phenomenon that will trigger the insurance payment. If, during the validity of the parametric insurance, a natural phenomenon occurs,  the fulfillment of the parameters would be  verified to make the insurance payment.  Verification of compliance with the parameter(s) established in the policy will be carried out by an independent third party, such as the National Hurricane Center, a division of the Tropical Prediction Center of the National Weather Service of the United States.  The parameters of the sites to be insured along the MAR are currently being evaluated. Tentatively, it could be determined that a hurricane with a speed starting at 64 knots -equivalent to 118,528 kilometers per hour - be one of the insurance parameters.


The payout will increase up to the annual aggregate limit over the 12-month policy depending on the wind speed: 110 knots or more will trigger a payout of 40% of the maximum limit, 130 or more will trigger an 80% payout while 160 knots or more will trigger a full limit payout.  Depending on the severity of storms, “the insurance policy would pay out up to that limit and if that limit is not met on the first storm, the second storm would still be eligible for a payout up to that limit,”

Interesting ! ~ though the concept in its entirety is not understood by minds which are tuned to calculating indemnity on the extent of loss, further adjusted by depreciation, salvage, adequacy of insurance and policy excess.

With regards – S. Sampathkumar

26.09.2020

Steam locomotive ~ this day 195 years ago !!

 In the city of Chennai, it appears as if – Corona has been won over ! – people are so casual. City buses are running, shops are open, malls are open – you see crowds and traffic on the roads – metro trains too are running but not the locals ie., Electric trains as also MRTS.  At a different level, Indian Railways is initiating clone trains – a list of 40 (20 pairs) – main feature being lesser stoppages and increased speed !  

Indian Railways has come a long since that day in 1953 ~ the rail network which is the biggest employer,  traverses the length and breadth of the country, covering in 2011 a total length of 64,460 kilometres (40,050 mi). If you are to search any of the Qs above in google – you will be pleasantly surprised to find the google doodle on Indian First Passenger train. The doodle has a train, pulled by a steam engine, chugging along over a background dotted with palm trees and a structure in the distance. Indeed, 16 April, 1853, was the day on which the first commercial passenger train left Mumbai's Bori Bunder for Thane. The train was pulled by three locomotives - Sindh, Sultan, and Sahib; was greeted by a 21 gun salute when it was pulling out of the platform. Now most routes are electrified, if not they are pulled by Diesel engine .. remember my early days the advice was not to look out through the window or stand near the door – for flying coal particles could fall into one’s eyes !! 

Poland authorities and mining unions said on Thursday that an agreement on a plan to restructure the country’s unprofitable and polluting coal industry is imminent, as hundreds of workers protesting the government’s intention to shut mines refused to return to the surface. Some of the miners have been underground since Monday when the protest began. From two mines, the movement has expanded to 10. Other miners have staged shorter demonstrations across the country’s southern coal region, a spokesman for one of the unions told Reuters on Wednesday.

Sixteen workers died and one is in a critical condition after being trapped underground in a coal mine in southwest China on Sunday, reported state broadcaster CCTV.  A conveyor belt caught fire in the early hours of the morning, state news agency Xinhua cited the government as saying, which produced dangerous levels of carbon monoxide.  The facility, Songzao Coal Mine, is owned by state energy firm Chongqing Energy and located just outside the city of Chongqing. Mining accidents are common in China, where the industry has a poor safety record and regulations are often weakly enforced.

Coal is a hard rock which can be burned as a solid fossil fuel. It is mostly carbon but also contains hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen. It is a sedimentary rock formed from peat, by the pressure of rocks laid down later on top. Peat, and therefore coal, is formed from the remains of plants which lived millions of years ago in tropical wetlands, such as those of the late Carboniferous period.  Coal can be burned for energy or heat. About two-thirds of the coal mined today is burned in power stations to make electricity. Like oil, when coal is burned its carbon joins with oxygen in the air and makes a lot of carbon dioxide, which causes climate change.  Coal can be roasted (heated very hot in a place where there is no oxygen) to produce coke. Coke can be used in smelting to reduce metals from their ores.

Coal from the inland mines in southern County Durham was taken away on packhorses, and then horse and carts as the roads were improved. A canal was proposed by George Dixon in 1767 and again by John Rennie in 1815, but both schemes failed.  Meanwhile, the port of Stockton-on-Tees, from which the Durham coal was transported onwards by sea, had invested considerably during the early 19th century in straightening the Tees in order to improve navigation on the river downstream of the town and was subsequently looking for ways to increase trade to recoup those costs. A few years later a canal was proposed on a route that bypassed Darlington and Yarm, and a meeting was held in Yarm to oppose the route. The Welsh engineer George Overton was consulted, and he advised building a tramroad. The Scottish engineer Robert Stevenson was said to favour the railway, and the Quaker Edward Pease supported it at a public meeting in Darlington in Nov  1818, promising a five per cent return on investment.   A private bill was presented to Parliament in March 1819, but as the route passed through Earl of Eldon's estate and one of the Earl of Darlington's fox coverts, it was opposed and defeated by 13 votes.

The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR) was a railway company that operated in north-east England from 1825 to 1863. The world's first public railway to use steam locomotives, its first line connected collieries near Shildon with Stockton-on-Tees and Darlington in County Durham, and was officially opened on 27 September 1825. The movement of coal to ships rapidly became a lucrative business, and the line was soon extended to a new port and town at Middlesbrough. While coal waggons were hauled by steam locomotives from the start, passengers were carried in coaches drawn by horses until carriages hauled by steam locomotives were introduced in 1833. 

A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fuelled by burning combustible material—usually coal, wood, or oil—to produce steam in a boiler. The steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotive's main wheels (drivers). Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons (tenders) pulled behind.

Steam locomotives were first developed in the United Kingdom during the early 19th century and used for railway transport until the middle of the 20th century. Richard Trevithick built the first steam locomotive in 1802. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was built in 1812–13 by John Blenkinsop, the Salamanca (locomotive); the Locomotion No. 1, built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, was the first steam locomotive to haul passengers on a public railway, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825 (this day 195 years ago !). In 1830 George Stephenson opened the first public inter-city railway, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Robert Stephenson and Company was the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives in the first decades of steam for railways in the United Kingdom, the United States, and much of Europe.

In the 20th century, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Nigel Gresley designed some of the most famous locomotives, including the Flying Scotsman, the first steam locomotive officially recorded over 100 mph in passenger service, and a LNER Class A4, 4468 Mallard, which still holds the record for being the fastest steam locomotive in the world (126 mph). From the early 1900s, steam locomotives were gradually superseded by electric and diesel locomotives, with railways fully converting to electric and diesel power beginning in the late 1930s. The majority of steam locomotives were retired from regular service by the 1980s, although several continue to run on tourist and heritage lines.

Locomotion No. 1 (originally named Active) was an early steam locomotive built by the pioneering railway engineers George and Robert Stephenson at their manufacturing firm, Robert Stephenson and Company. It became the first steam locomotive to haul a passenger carrying train on a public railway, the Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR). Locomotion No. 1 was ordered by the Stockton and Darlington Railway Company in September 1824; its design benefitted from George Stephenson's experience building his series of Killingworth locomotives. It is believed that Locomotion No. 1 was the first locomotive to make use of coupling rods to link together its driving wheels, reducing the chance of the wheels slipping on the iron rails. However, the centre-flue boiler proved to be a weakness, providing for a poor heating surface compared to later multi-flue boilers.

In September 1825, Locomotion No. 1 hauled the first train on the Stockton and Darlington Railway, and became the first locomotive to run on a public railway. On 1 July 1828, it was heavily damaged when its boiler exploded at Aycliffe Lane station, resulting in the death of its driver, John Cree. It was rebuilt but, as a consequence of the rapid advances in locomotive design, Locomotion No. 1 became obsolete within a decade. It was used on the railway until 1841, after which it was converted into a stationary engine. In 1857, as a consequence of its historical importance, Locomotion No. 1 was preserved and put on display. Between 1892 and 1975, it was on static display at one of the platforms at Darlington Bank Top railway station. It is presently at the Head of Steam museum. A working replica of Locomotion has also been built and following years of operation at Beamish Museum it is now currently on static display in Darlington at the Head of Steam Museum. 

George Stephenson (1781 –  1848) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer. Renowned as the "Father of Railways", Stephenson was considered by the Victorians a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement.  His chosen rail gauge, sometimes called 'Stephenson gauge',  was the basis for the 4 feet 8 1⁄2 inches (1.435 m) standard gauge used by most of the world's railways. Pioneered by Stephenson, rail transport was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century and a key component of the Industrial Revolution

Interesting !

 

With regards – S. Sampathkumar

27.09.2020.