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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Remembering Mahakavi Subramanya Barathiyar 2019


11th  Dec  is a day to remember ~ it marks the 137th birth   anniversary of the greatest poet, a great son of India – Mahakavi Subrahmanya Barathiyar.



வந்தே மாதரம் என்போம்-எங்கள்  மாநிலத் தாயை வணங்குதல் என்போம்.
- என்ற வரிகளை கேட்டு மெய் சிலிர்த்தது உண்டா ?

பாரத சமுதாயம் வாழ்கவே! - வாழ்க வாழ்க!
பாரத சமுதாயம் வாழ்கவே! - ஜய ஜய ஜய
முப்பது கோடி ஜனங்களின் சங்கம் - முழுமைக்கும் பொது உடைமை
ஒப்பிலாத சமுதாயம்  - உலகத்துக்கொரு புதுமை - வாழ்க! (பாரத)
~ என்று நம் தேசத்தை வியந்த எந்தை எங்கள் மஹாகவி ஒப்புயர்வற்ற ஞானி தீர்க்கதரிசி அஞ்சாநெஞ்சன் சுதந்திர போராட்ட மாவீரன் சுப்பிரமணிய பாரதி!


சுப்ரமணிய பாரதியார் ~ ஒரு உன்னத பிறவி.   கவிதைகள் வாயிலாக மக்களின் மனதில் விடுதலை உணர்வை ஊட்டியவர். இவர் ஒரு கவிஞர் மட்டுமல்லாமல் ஒரு எழுத்தாளர், பத்திரிக்கை ஆசிரியர், சமூக சீர்திருத்தவாதி - தன்  காலத்துக்கு  மிகவும் பல்லாண்டுகள்  பிறகு நடக்க வல்லவை பற்றி  கூர் நோக்குடன் சிந்தித்தவர்.  குறைந்த காலமே வாழ்ந்தாலும் சாதனைகள் செய்தவர். இளமையிலேயே கவிபாடும் திறமை பெற்றிருந்த சுப்பிரமணியன், எட்டையபுர சமஸ்தானப் புலவர்கள் அவையில் பாரதி என்ற பட்டம் பெற்றார். அன்று முதல் இவர்“சுப்பிரமணிய பாரதியார்”என அழைக்கப்பெற்றார்.


The man who was to become an iconoclastic freedom fighter was born in a small village called Ettayapuram on Dec 11, 1882. His  parents  Chinnasami Subramanya Iyer and Lakhsmiammaal named him Subbaiah. V At the age of seven, Subbiah started writing poems in Tamil. When he was eleven, he wrote in such a way that even learned men praised him for his great knowledge and skill.  The boy who was till then referred to as “Ettayapuram Subbiah” was proudly referred as “Bharathi” thenceforth  by nationalists and by millions of Tamil lovers all over the globe.

In June 1897, at a very young age of 15 (customary those days) his  marriage took place, and his child-bride was Chellammal.  Bharathi left for Benaras (Kasi). He lived there the next two years with his aunt Kuppammal and her husband Krishna Sivan.  He learnt with flair and became expert in Sanskrit, Hindi and English, passing  with credit the Entrance Examination of the Allahabad University. The Benares  stay brought about a tremendous change in Bharathi’s personality.  His personality and looks too changed – he started sporting a twirled  moustache;  a  turban and acquired a bold swing in his walk.   Interestingly, this is what he claimed himself to be (at a much later stage !)

நமக்குத் தொழில்கவிதை,  நாட்டிற்கு உழைத்தல்*
இமைப் பொழுதுஞ் சோராதிருத்தல்- உமைக்கினிய
மைந்தன் கணநாதன் நங்குடியை வாழ்விப்பான்;
சிந்தையே! இன்மூன்றும் செய்.

He prayed Lord Siva (Umainathan) to bless the community stating that his avocation was ‘writing poetry, working for mother land and persevering without battling eye-lid for the cause’ – appeals blessing for these three !

Bharathi started his own journal India in 1906 and published his fiery patriotic poems and blunt anti-colonial articles. His association with V. O. C. became more intimate, the latter floated his Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in 1906. Bharathi helped him in getting contributions for shares in the company and donations. The great man hailed as Kappalottiya thamizhan fought  Imperial British traders challenging them at sea.  Irked by this, VOC  was subsequently foisted with  serious charges of sedition and conspiracy, which got him two life terms of rigorous imprisonment whence he was physically assaulted and humiliated.  Barathiyar too underwent harassment and was severely injured in prison, which infact led to his death.


Mahakavi Subramanya Barathi lived in Thulasinga Perumal Kovil Street (TP Koil Street) during his last years – he was a tenant in a small portion (single room) in the  house seen here.

By his songs and concerted actions, he reached to the masses making them aware of the need for freedom struggle and could make a great movement in Southern part of the Nation.  He was a fiery leader with progressive leader and great vision, clearly a man who lived much beyond his age and foresaw things clearly.  Bharathi supported Tilak and Aurobindo together with V. O. Chidambaram Pillai and Kanchi Varathaachariyar. Tilak openly supported armed resistance against the British. In 1908, he gave evidence in the case which had been instituted by the British against V.O. Chidambaram Pillai. In the same year, the proprietor of the journal India was arrested in Madras. Faced with the prospect of arrest, Bharathi escaped to Pondicherry which was under French rule. From there he edited and published the weekly journal India, Vijaya, a Tamil daily, Bala Bharatha, an English monthly, and Suryothayam, a local weekly of Pondicherry. The British tried to suppress Bharathi's output by stopping remittances and letters to the papers. Both India and Vijaya were banned in British India in 1909.

His poetry stands out for many facets of his love for his motherland. He berates his countrymen for many social evils. He chastises them for a fearful and pusillanimous attitude towards the rulers. He gave a clarion call for national unity, removal of casteism and the removal of oppression of women. He calls for the British to leave the motherland in forceful ways at one point saying "Even if Indians are divided, they are children of One Mother, where is the need for foreigners to interfere?".

The land of Pondicherry bears connection to this great revolutionary.  Apart from running journals and magazines from here, he sung about the famous deity of Pondy ~ “Manakula Vinayagar” in his Vinayagar Nanmani Maalai [விநாயகர் நான்மணி மாலை] – by some accounts this was published out of handwritten manuscripts in 1929 posthomously.

Bharati’s knowledge of the happenings around him, and all over the world was accurate and detailed. As a journalist, who had to deal with international matters, he read almost all the English newspapers, especially those published from England. He discussed in his articles many matters relating to the freedom of India, its economic, political, artistic and spiritual growth, in comparison with other nations, who were caught in a similar predicament.

An Organisation ~ “Vaanavil Panpattu Maiyam”  have been celebrating the birth anniversary of Mahakavi every year, by organizing various programmes at Triplicane at the house where Bharatiyar resided.    In the words of Bharathi, those who are truly devoted would not be impatient and would not do things in a hurry for they know how life grows out steadily out of seed; and for those who are given to understanding the divine power is everything ~ also know that all they need to do is to work with esteem rest being taken by Divine shakthi.

பக்தியுடையார் காரியத்திற் பதறார், மிகுந்த பொறுமையுடன்
வித்து முளைக்குந் தன்மைபோல் மெல்லச்செய்து பயனடைவார்,
சக்தி தொழிலே அனைத்துமெனிற் சார்ந்த நமக்குச் சஞ்சலமேன்?
வித்தைக்கிறைவா, கணநாதா, மேன்மைத் தொழிலிற் பணியெனையே.


History written by British has it that the elephant of Sri Parthasarathi temple trampled him to death ~ though an incident of elephant brushing Mahakavi Subramanya Barathiyar did occur somewhere in June, he lived for more than 3 months after that reported incident.  After that reported incident, he continued his activities at Swadesamitran, spoke at public meetings and made some visits too – and most probably died in Sept due  to failing health, derived from the boot blows and harsh treatment meted out in prison by British authorities – which is comfortably hidden in history.     
             

வெள்ளையர் தம் அடக்குமுறை, எப்போதும் ஓட்டம், பசி, பிணி போன்றவற்றால் வாடிய மஹாகவிஞனை - "கோவில் யானை அடித்து கொன்றது" என்ற கட்டுக்கதையை பரப்பியுள்ளனர்.  யானையால் பாரதி தள்ளுண்ட நிகழ்வு ஒரு ஜூன்  மாதத்தில் நிகழ்ந்ததாம்; அப்போது அவரை குவளை கண்ணன் காப்பாற்றியுள்ளார்.   அச் சம்பவத்தின் பின்பு அவர் வழக்கம் போல "சுதேச மித்திரன்" பத்திரிகை அலுவலகம் சென்று தனது வேலைகளைச் செய்து வந்துள்ளார். மேலும் சென்னை நகரக் கடற்கரைப் பொதுக்கூட்டங்களில் தொடர்ந்தும் கலந்து கொண்டு வந்துள்ளார். ஜூலை  31ம் திகதி கருங்கற்பாளைய வாசகசாலையின் 5வது வருடக் கொண்டாட்டக் கூட்டத்தில் பாரதியார் பேசிய உரையின் தலைப்பு "மனிதனுக்கு மரணமில்லை."  - அவர் இறந்ததோ செப்ட் 12 அதிகாலை !!!

With great regards to the poet – S. Sampathkumar.
11th Dec 2019.

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

George Laurer. developer of barcode is no more !


There is traffic everywhere ~ on week ends and on festival days, so many people are travelling – at every toll-plaza there are long winding queues and some try to outwit others by jumping lanes and creating chaos ! .. .. RFID is in news ..  Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information.  

Unlike a barcode, the tags don't need to be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object.  Operated by the National Highway Authority of India, FastTAG is an electronic toll collection system that allows you to make automatic toll payments directly from your linked account, through Radio Frequency Identification Technology.  FastTAG will allow you to make payments at toll plazas electronically where a scanner detects the tag and automatically deducts the toll amount from passengers’ e-wallets. The device is attached to the vehicle’s windscreen allowing passengers to pass through without stopping. Once you pass through a tollbooth, you receive an SMS stating the deducted amount.

Science and technology have changed the way people shopped.  Gone are the days when you waited patiently in your neighbourhood grocery shop – the man loudly repeating every item you ordered and then writing a slip of paper the values to be paid ! .. now you push a cart around, pick-up all wanted & unwanted – at the counter, scanner will read the barcodes,  there would be a beep sound,  billing happens  ~ in the end, one would never know – what was billed, how much one had to pay, and what was the discount bragged about !

A life without barcodes is hard to imagine now. But it wasn’t that long ago, and the story doesn’t start with George Laurer. It starts with an engineer named Joseph Woodland. In 1948 Woodland was trying to come up with simple symbol that, when scanned, would translate to a number that a computer could use to identify a product.
A barcode (also spelled bar code) is a method of representing data in a visual, machine-readable form. Initially, barcodes represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines. These barcodes, now commonly referred to as linear or one-dimensional (1D), can be scanned by special optical scanners, called barcode readers. Later, two-dimensional (2D) variants were developed. 2D barcodes can be read or deconstructed using application software on mobile devices with inbuilt cameras, such as smartphones.  Would you know that manually reading a barcode too is possible, but only when one understand that the  12 numbers represent. The row of numbers found on a barcode is known as the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN).


While a barcode only holds information in the horizontal direction, a QR code does hold information in both horizontal and vertical directions. Due to this, a QR code holds hundreds of times more information than a barcode. The tale of the barcode's invention begins in 1948, on a beach in Miami. Its inventor, Joseph Woodland, was thinking of Morse code and tracing circles in the sand at the time, reports 99% invisible. But Woodland's patent didn't make much of a splash until 1973. The executives approached 14 companies to come up with a solution. And as it turns out, it was an IBM employee named George Laurer who came up with the final design.  The very first barcodes were in the shape of a bulls-eye, though they weren’t called “barcodes” yet. Woodland’s invention was patented in 1952 as a “Classifying Apparatus and Method”. Finally, in 1973, a group of supermarket executives led by Alan Haberman decided they needed to get some kind of scannable symbol in place to move people through checkout lines faster. They laid out a list of specifications that their ideal symbol would have and asked 14 companies, including IBM, to come up with a solution.

                                     George Laurer   was working at IBM at the time  and was tasked with making Woodland’s circular “Classifying Apparatus and Method” work. But Laurer didn’t think the bulls-eye would fulfill the specifications set forth by the grocery industry. So he set out to make something that would. Eventually, Laurer came up with a rectangular design that fit more code into less space and didn’t smear on the presses (like Woodland’s bulls-eye symbol did).  The “Symbol Selection Committee” voted unanimously for Laurer’s rectangular symbol and code, which they named the Universal Product Code, or UPC.  A year later, in 1974,  a pack of Wrigley’s chewing gum became the first item to be scanned with a UPC barcode. According to GS1  (Global Standards One), the agency which issues barcode numbers, there are now about 5 billion barcodes scanned every day around the world.

George Laurer, the US engineer who helped develop the barcode, has died at the age of 94. Laurer died last Thursday at his home in Wendell, North Carolina, and his funeral was held on Monday.

With regards – S. Sampathkumar
10th Dec 2019.

birth of Chimera piglets ! ~ good to mankind or unethical ?


Schneider plays Marvin Mange, a man who is critically injured but unknown to him he is put back together by a mad scientist who transplants animal parts, resulting in strange permanent changes to his behavior. Days later, Marvin returns to his normal life with no memory of what had happened. Suddenly, he's full of life. He can outrun horses, mean dogs are now scared of him, and he does not need his asthma medicine. He thinks it is due to his late-night TV purchase of "Badger Milk", which is guaranteed in the ads to make him stronger.

A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Pigs include domestic pigs and their ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), along with other species. Juvenile pigs are known as piglets. Pigs are highly social and intelligent animals.  The domestic pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world.  .. .. the birth of a piglet is the subject-matter of this post !  Piglet is a fictional character from A. A. Milne's Winnie the Pooh books. Piglet is Winnie the Pooh's closest friend amongst all the toys and animals featured in the stories. Although he is a "Very Small Animal" of a generally timid disposition, he tries to be brave and on occasion conquers his fears.

It is not the birth of any-other piglet - Two chimera piglets containing monkey DNA have been born in China.   The news that researchers want to create human-animal chimeras has generated controversy recently and may conjure up ideas about Frankenstein-ish experiments. But chimeras aren't always man-made—and there are a number of examples of human chimeras that already exist.  A chimera is essentially a single organism that's made up of cells from two or more "individuals"—that is, it contains two sets of DNA, with the code to make two separate organisms. One way that chimeras can happen naturally in humans is that a fetus can absorb its twin. This can occur with fraternal twins if one embryo dies very early in pregnancy, and some of its cells are "absorbed" by the other twin. The remaining fetus will have two sets of cells, its own original set, plus the one from its twin.

Animal chimeras are produced by the merger of multiple fertilized eggs.  Another way that chimerism can occur in animals is by organ transplantation, giving one individual tissue that developed from a different genome. For example, transplantation of bone marrow often determines the recipient's ensuing blood type. Pig-primate chimeras have been born live for the first time but died within a week. The two piglets, created by a team in China, looked normal although a small proportion of their cells were derived from cynomolgus monkeys. “This is the first report of full-term pig-monkey chimeras” said Tang Hai at the State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology in Beijing. The ultimate aim of the work is to grow human organs in animals for transplantation. But the results show there is still a long way to go to achieve this, the team said.

Hai and his colleagues genetically modified cynomolgus monkey cells growing in culture to make them produce a fluorescent protein called GFP, enabling them to track these cells and their descendants. They then derived embryonic stem cells from these modified cells and injected them into pig embryos five days after fertilisation. More than 4000 embryos were implanted in sows. Ten piglets were born as a result, of which two were chimeras. All died within a week of birth. In the chimeric piglets, multiple tissues – including the heart, liver, spleen, lung and skin – partly consisted of monkey cells, but the proportion was low: between one in 1000 and one in 10,000.

It isn’t clear why the piglets died, says Hai, but because the non-chimeric pigs died as well, the team suspects it is to do with the IVF process rather than the chimerism. IVF doesn’t work nearly as well in pigs as it does in humans and some other animals. The team is now trying to create healthy animals with a higher proportion of monkey cells, says Hai. If that is successful, the next step would be to try to create pigs in which one organ is composed almost entirely of primate cells.  Something like this has already been achieved in rodents. In 2010, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, now at Stanford University in California, created mice with rat pancreases by genetically modifying the mice so their own cells couldn’t develop into a pancreas.
Given the extremely low chimeric efficiency and the deaths of all the animals, a key stemcell biologist sees it as a flop and feels that it may never be possible to grow organs suitable for transplantation by creating animal-human chimeras. However, it makes sense to continue researching this approach along with others such as tissue engineering, he says. Despite the research, some members of the scientific community have warned against creating chimeras due to ethical concerns.  One quipped - 'For us to start to manipulate life functions in this kind of way without fully knowing how to turn it off, or stop it if something goes awry really scares me.'

However, China shows no sign of stopping after proposing in July to create monkeys with partially human-derived brains in order to better study diseases like Alzheimer's. Yale University stem cell expert Alejandro De Los Angeles has written that the search for a better animal model to simulate human disease has been a 'holy grail' of biomedical research for decades. It is hoped the research could offer an alternative to organ donation.  Every day few people die on road accidents,  because replacement organs cannot be found.

Scientists have long pursued the idea of keeping people alive by using parts from animals – a process referred to as xenotransplantation. But it was long believed to be impossible; early experiments showed that the body takes about five minutes to reject an organ from another species. Xenotransplantation (Xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign" or strange, or heterologous transplant is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.

The one at the start on Schneider playing Marvin Mange, a man who is critically injured but unknown to him he is put back together by a mad scientist who transplants animal parts, resulting in strange permanent changes to his behavior was the storyline of ‘The Animal’ released in 2001, directed by Luke Greenfield, starring Rob Schneider, Colleen Haskell and others. 

Interesting !

With regards – S. Sampathkumar
10th Dec 2019.
(news source :  https://www.newscientist.com)

Lady Tatiana (Mountbatten) banned from driving for 6 months


Queen Elizabeth, 93+ is always in news ! –  It was the WhatsApp message that convinced millions of people the Queen is no more.  had died. Now, the mystery of how a man called Gibbo and his friends inadvertently created a fake news panic that went “bigger than Ben Hur” has apparently been solved – and the finger of blame is pointing at a military drill near Yeovil.   On Sunday night, millions of Britons received messages suggesting the monarch had passed away, often forwarded on WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter, prompting Google searches for the Queen to spike and forcing Buckingham Palace to insist the 93-year-old was very much still alive.

Moving away, the Queen's second cousin was recently banned from driving after speeding three times in ten days despite claiming it would place 'significant hardship' on her equestrian business.  Lady Tatiana Mountbatten, 29, from Knightsbridge, admitted breaking the 60mph speed limit on the M4 in her 2018 £50,000 grey Porsche Macan three times in March this year. The aristocratic horse rider was caught in her 4x4 by a speed camera on the M4 near Heston Services on March 1 driving at 70mph, the court heard. Her Porsche was then caught five days later, on March 6, travelling at 71mph and then again on March 10 at 70mph.  

Imagine something akin happening to kin of a political leader in India!  ~ a few years ago, when a former CM was arrested, someone shouted at the Police claiming that he is a Central Minister and is above law ! - Mountbatten appeared at Lavender Hill Magistrates' Court, Battersea, London,  wearing a silk scarf under a black designer coat.  She spoke only to confirm her name, address, date of birth, and to enter guilty pleas to three charges of exceeding the speed limit.   Lady Tatiana already had nine penalty points on her license after receiving three more for each speeding offence which took her over the disqualification threshold of 12 points.  Because Lady Tatiana is the only holder of a HGV licence within her business, the court heard the ban will cause great inconvenience in transporting horses via a horsebox.  Lawyers representing Lady Tatiana said that a driving ban would place her in 'significant hardship' because she needed to travel to and from her equestrian business, which is an hour from London. 

Lady Tatiana rides every morning in Windsor and drives to run her business horsehub.com, according to her website. Her horses are based outside of London making her dependent on using her car.  Besides horse-riding, she has other avocations too. Lady Tatiana was appointed as an ambassador to the 'quintessential luxury British fashion' brand Crofton & Hall least year.  Mark Haslam, defending, said the impact of a ban would mean she would have to use public transport or 'beg, borrow and steal' to get to work but her 'greatest concern' was it could cost her staff their jobs. He added:  'Of course she is the author of her own misfortune and she must bear the consequences. But there is a knock-on effect.' Mr. Haslam said his client had not 'wilfully disregarded' the limit but had been 'blissfully unaware of her offending' after not realising the speed had been reduced from 70mph to 60mph.

However, a panel of magistrates said Lady Tatiana would be disqualified for six months. She was fined £150 for each speeding offence, with £85 costs and a £30 victim surcharge.  Magistrate Bukky Okunade told her: 'We have heard what has been said on your behalf and given you credit for pleading guilty in the first instance. 'They are serious matters of speeding, a multiple matter, three. Because of your totting you have to be disqualified for six months.  'If you drive while disqualified it is a serious offence and you can be sent into custody and disqualified again.' Her brother, Henry Mountbatten, Earl of Medina, escaped a driving ban in 2012 after telling the court he could not afford to take a taxi to his regular flying lessons. 

Now a little bit of the family of the offender. Lady Tatiana is the daughter of Lord Milford Haven, who is a cousin of the Queen's, making her the second cousin of the Queen.  Lady Tatiana was born in 1990  to George Mountbatten, 4th Marquess of Milford Haven and his wife, Sarah Georgina (née Walker). Her great-grandparents gave up their German titles in exchange for titles within the British peerage, and Anglicized their family name from Battenberg to Mountbatten.  The Mountbatten family is a European dynasty originating as a cadet branch of the German princely Battenberg family. The name was adopted during World War I by family members residing in the United Kingdom due to rising anti-German sentiment amongst the British public. The name is a direct Anglicisation of the German Battenberg (literally Batten Mountain), a small town in Hesse.

Earl Mountbatten of Burma is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created in 1947 for Rear Admiral Louis Mountbatten, 1st Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, youngest son of the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven and the last Viceroy of India. The letters patent creating the title specified the following special remainder to his daughters. The subsidiary titles of the Earldom are Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton, created 1946, and Baron Romsey, of Romsey in the County of Southampton, created in 1947. Both of these titles, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, have the same special remainder as the Earldom.

Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1900 – 1979), was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.  During the Second World War, he was Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command.   He was the last Viceroy of India (1947) and the first Governor-General of independent India (1947–1948). 


His experience in the region and in particular his perceived Labour sympathies at that time led to Clement Attlee appointing him Viceroy of India on 20 Feb 1947  charged with overseeing the transition of British India to independence. Given the British government's recommendations to grant independence quickly, Mountbatten concluded that a united India was an unachievable goal and resigned himself to a plan for partition, creating the independent nations of India and Pakistan. When India and Pakistan attained independence at midnight on the night of 14–15 August 1947, Mountbatten remained in New Delhi for 10 months, serving as India's first governor general until June 1948. On Mountbatten's advice, India took the issue of Kashmir to the newly formed United Nations in January 1948. The issue of Kashmir would become a lasting thorn in his legacy.

He held various other positions after leaving India.  Sadly, in 1979, Mountbatten, his grandson Nicholas, and two others were killed by a bomb set by members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, hidden aboard his fishing boat in Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland.

Prior to Mountbatten, the Viceroy was -  Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, KStJ, PC (1883 –  1950) was a senior officer of the British Army. He served in the Second Boer War, the Bazar Valley Campaign and World War I, during which he was wounded in the Second Battle of Ypres. He was  defeated by the German Army in the Western Desert in April 1941. He served as Commander-in-Chief, India, from July 1941 until June 1943 and then served as Viceroy of India until his retirement in Feb 1947.

With regards – S. Sampathkumar
10th dec 2019.